Management of Globisporangium ultimum Infecting Groundnut and Bambara Groundnut Pods Using Diverse Methods
Keywords:Control, Pesticides, Plant extracts, Pythium species, Vigna subterranea
Bambara groundnut and groundnut are leguminous crops of immense importance globally. However, these crops are exceedingly susceptible to Globisporangium ultimum groundnut pod rot disease which constitute foremost constraints to their production. The objective of proffering solutions to this pod rot disease was set and achieved using three diverse trials. Each experiment was conducted separately in vitro using completely randomized design and each treatment was replicated three times. Firstly, the trial conducted using synthetic chemicals; Team® (i.e. mancozeb + carbendazim) and Mancozeb® revealed that team inhibited mycelial growth of G. ultimum more than Mancozeb (at 50% and 100% concentrations) as from 24 hours after inoculation (HAI). Generally, mancozeb achieved 8%- 100% inhibition, while team achieved 36%-100% inhibition. Secondly, the trial carried out utilizing plant extracts (African locust bean tree, mango, shea butter tree and pawpaw plant tissues) revealed that inhibition by plant extracts was lowest (8.0%) in shea butter (at 50% concentration) and highest (100% inhibition) at 24 HAI in African locust bean (Parkia sp.) (100% concentration), mango (100%) and shea butter (100%) . The best plant extracts were African locust bean tree (100% concentration), Pawpaw (100%), Mango (100%) and Shea butter tree (100%) followed by African locust bean (50%). Finally, the trial conducted using biocontrol agents (Trichoderma and Cladosporium spp.) revealed that these agents inhibited mycelial growth of G. ultimum by 12%-100%. All the biocontrol agents (T. harzianum NSBM, T. virens BGMZ2, T. harzianum AIM3, Cladosporium cladiosporioides AIGT, C. cladiosporioides AIPL and T. viride AIBK) were significantly different (P ≤ 0.05) from the control at 96 HAI. Inhibition by bio-control agents generally ranged between 10%-90%. Thus groundnut pod rot disease complex can be effectively managed using these pesticides; nevertheless conducting of field based trials is being admonished.
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